This study includes complete information on almond culture, the study discusses in detail: characteristics of almond culture, demand for soil-climatic conditions, pests-diseases, harvesting, products, primary processing, local and world market, documentation required for export-import, etc.
World consumption of almonds is growing every year, in parallel with the growth of consumption, its production has increased significantly in Georgia. Hundreds of hectares of almond orchards have been planted in the last 2-3 years.
If the cultivation of almond orchards continues at the current pace, Georgia has a chance to take an honorable place in the list of almond producing countries and to be included in the list of exporting countries.
Despite such potential, so far the almond market in the country is very chaotic and disorganized. We do not actually have local production of almonds. There are no stable supply channels, the market is dependent on imports and we do not have production orchards.
There are no commercial almond orchards in Georgia. In the last 3 years, more than 1200 hectares of almond orchards have been planted, but none of them have been yielding yet. Several hundred hectares will be planted in the coming years and it will be necessary to build almond processing plants very soon.
Georgian almonds have the potential to be exported to the European Union, the Middle East and Asia. However, to enter these markets, it is essential that the price be competitive. It is also important to comply with food safety and product quality requirements.
According to official statistics, a large number of almonds are imported to Georgia every year, and exports are almost non-existent, there are separate cases of almond exports in the country. For example, in 2015, 15 tons of rindless almonds have been exported from Georgia, and in 2016 - 24 tons.
As for the soil-climatic conditions, in order to get a high yield of almonds, it is very important to select the right plot and plant feeding area. Carbonate soils with light mechanical composition and good aeration are best for almonds, although its plantations are also found on clayey, loamy and stony soils.
Almond seedlings can be planted in both autumn and early spring.
The following products are produced from almond culture: fruit, milk and oil.
The selection of late flowering forms and varieties is a necessary precondition for a stable annual almond harvest in Georgia. At present, according to the high quality, yield and frost resistance of the kernel, the varieties varied in Eastern Georgia, Kvemo Kartli and Kakheti are: Shakara, Shirakula, Zilicha, Tkhelnachucha, Nikiti 62, Dzegvuri, Kachretuli, Gika, Lisi, Patardzeuli, Nonpareli, Supernova, Ferani, Genko, Tuonovo, Bute, Padre, Mardia and Grand-Ferran Daguara.
One of the most important problems in our country is the lack of nurseries and orchards. About 70% of almond seedlings are imported into the country, while the rest are locally produced. Seedlings are imported from Italy and Spain.
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Local nurseries produce about 25,000 - 30,000 almond seedlings a year.